All business model frameworks have the customer and the value proposition, or offer, as key elements. The value proposition is described as the products or services offered to different customers segments, and is a function of key resources and key processes (or activities) given to the input from suppliers (or partners). In some of the frameworks, partners are also included as an element to provide external resources and activities to enable the company to provide its value propositions. One of the things I'm missing in these frameworks is the perspective of co-creation of value. Value creation from the customers' perspective is not necessarily sequential, all captured in one company's value propositions, but in many cases parallel, offered simultaneously by different actors.
The business model concept takes its starting point in how an organization creates and captures value. Since the 1960s, different frameworks have been presented to capture the building blocks of value creation. Almost all frameworks take their starting point in the organization, or the firm, and what is being provided as output from within the organizational boundaries. This made sense when competition was based on one company's dominance of some asset or mastery of production, but I don't know if it is sufficient to innovate business models today. To clearly describe or analyze Google's business model for Android, without including what other companies such as handset manufacturers or app developers provide the same customers, is impossible. (Great guest post: Is Android Evil?)
When designing business models, do not limit your thinking to the value you are creating or potentially could create combining external resources and activities, but include complementary values that others could provide, in the business model equation. Perhaps there should be business model frameworks taking the starting point in customer value creation, not limited to what one business can provide?
Is there a need for customer value creation models? Are there any good ones out there?